We believe that there are approximately 11 key technologies that ensure that our vision can be realized. In the image below, some of the 11 key technologies have been added to the outline of our vision.
1 Renewable power: Wind and Solar to generate electricity at Giga Watt scale
2 Electrification: Power-to-X (P2X) Electrochemical conversion for energy storage, chemicals, transport and reconversion pathways. Also to utilize surplus electric power (flex), as renewable resources typically fluctuate.
3 Electrolyser Fuel Cell, “Power to Gas” Producing green Hydrogen thru SOEC, rSOC for Ammonia, Chlorine, formic acid, etc. from electricity
4 Bio-refinery: Recycle bio-waste into Advanced Biofuel, lignocellulosic ethanol for fuels and lignin for power
5 Mechanical Recycling ‘First line of defence’, reuse of plastic waste directly into production process, like PE and PET
6 Chemical recycling ‘Second line of defence’, recycling plastics back to virgin materials
7 Hydro-Pyrolysis ‘Third line of defence’, carbon recycling of biomass/lignin residues into green fuel and gas for power
8 CCU “Carbon Capture and Utilisation” is capturing CO2 from point source emissions like bio-ethanol and digesters, reformers, but also from flue gases of remaining traditional high temperature heating, combustion/incineration processes to recycle into various chemicals, plastics, minerals and fuels i.e. methanol.
9 Green Methanol to MTO & MTG Green CCU methanol production from green Hydrogen and recycled CO2 as “platform chemical” can replace crude oil and natural gas, while methanol can be the feed for Methanol to Green Gasoline fuels and Methanol to Green Olefins for Green Polymers, PE/PP plastics. So important link between Hydrogen and Circular Carbon economies.
10 Fuel cells Fuel cells generate power much more efficient than combustion engines, and without particulate matter PM nor NOx emissions in automotive. Also for transition to green gas/hydrogen use in domestic heating systems from existing gas grids, and in larger power plants. With advanced biofuels SOFC generate near zero nett CO2 emissions, or even negative CO2 emissions when CO2 is recycled.
11 CCS/mineralisation “Carbon Capture Storage” is capturing CO2 and store it in construction materials (mineral, concrete and cement). Off-shore CCS storage from traditional industrial processes should be the last resort since it is costly and valuable purified CO2 is stored permanently (end-of-pipe solution).
If you would like to know more about our PACT2030 approach, please contact us.